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lithium is the lightest of all metals, has the greatest electrochemical potential and provides the largest energy density for weight.

Attempts to develop rechargeable lithium batteries failed due to safety problems.

These cells come at a higher cost in terms of stored energy.

The lithium-polymer differentiates itself from conventional battery systems in the type of electrolyte used.

The original design, dating back to the 1970s, uses a dry solid polymer electrolyte.

This electrolyte resembles a plastic-like film that does not conduct electricity but allows ions exchange (electrically charged atoms or groups of atoms).

Because of the inherent instability of lithium metal, especially during charging, research shifted to a non-metallic lithium battery using lithium ions.

Some capacity deterioration is noticeable after one year, whether the battery is in use or not.

In 1991, the Sony Corporation commercialized the first lithium-ion battery. The energy density of lithium-ion is typically twice that of the standard nickel-cadmium. The load characteristics are reasonably good and behave similarly to nickel-cadmium in terms of discharge.

The high cell voltage of 3.6 volts allows battery pack designs with only one cell.

This is especially true for nickel-metal-hydride if exposed to high ambient temperatures.

At the same time, lithium-ion packs are known to have served for five years in some applications.

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